Death records in sicily from 1945-1950
The personnel records included 3,, men who were confirmed dead in the Death Files and another 15,, men in the General Files who had served in the war including those listed as missing and presumed dead. The total sample pulled for the research consisted of the files of 4, personnel dead or missing in military service during the war: The first group 4, from Army, Air Force and from Waffen SS and paramilitary organizations including 3, confirmed dead from the Death Files and another 1, found to be dead or missing in the General Files The Second Group of men found to be dead or missing was selected from the separate Navy files.
The research by Overmans concluded in that the total German military dead and missing were 5,, Of the 2 million presumed dead, Overmans believes , died in Soviet custody without being reported as POWs. The missing , does not include confirmed deaths in captivity, however on page Overmans mentions , missing in the East in and states that this figure of missing was based on his finding that two thirds of deaths during the "final battles" occurred in the East of Germany.
He further argues p.
On the other hand, Overmans states that ", soldiers per month" p. Overall, Overmans estimates losses for the entire war on the Eastern front at 4 million and in the West 1 million.
Collection Number: 5276
Monthly German military casualties at point of death per Overmans study. Not including living POWs still held. Figures do not include prisoners held by Allies. Prisoners held during the war are listed in a separate schedule below. Monthly figures do not add because of rounding. Soviet sources reported that "In the German Army lost more than 1,, men killed on the Soviet-German front alone. Figures do not include POW deaths of , in Soviet captivity; these losses were listed separately by Overmans.
According to Overmans there are no reliable figures to breakout the national origin for the figure of , men of German ancestry conscripted into the Waffen-SS  Overmans maintains that records of the Deutsche Dienststelle WASt surveyed only persons of German ancestry "deutsche nach Abstammung"  However Polish sources maintain that during the war the Germans forcibly conscripted ethnic Poles into the German military.
They were declared citizens of the Third Reich by law and therefore subject to drumhead court-martial in case of draft evasion.
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Overmans does not include Russian volunteers in the Wehrmacht in his figures, only persons of German ancestry Deutsche nach Abstammung. According to Overmans there is no reliable data on losses of Soviet volunteers  Russian military historian G. Overmans maintains that his research project taking a statistical sample of the records of the Deutsche Dienststelle WASt found that the German military casualty reporting system broke down during the war and that losses were understated. The fates of German prisoners of war have been a concern in post war Germany.
By the Soviets reported that they had repatriated all German prisoners of war except a small number of convicted war criminals. Overmans estimates the actual death toll of German POWs is about 1.
In recent years there has been a joint Russian-German project to investigate the fate of POWs in the war. According to the records of the western Allies 2. On March 27 Eisenhower declared at a press conference that the enemy were a whipped army. One reason for this huge difference, possibly the most important, was that German forces facing the Red Army tended to fight to the end for fear of Soviet captivity whereas German forces facing the Western Allies tended to surrender without putting up much if any resistance. Accordingly the number of German killed and wounded was much higher in the East than in the West.
The Western Allies also took , German soldiers prisoner in North Africa  , and at least , by the end of April in the Italian campaign . It is worth noting that the allied armies which captured the 2. The number of dead and wounded on both sides was about equal. For instance, in the battle of the Ruhr Pocket , there were about 10, fatalities on the German side including prisoners of war in German captivity, foreign forced laborers, Volkssturm militia and unarmed civilians ,  whereas about , Germans surrendered.
Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkrieges. Page Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Ullstein Taschenbuch vlg. The Russian military historian G. Krivosheev gave a separate set of statistics that put losses at 2,, Killed; 2,, missing and 5,, wounded. According to Krivosheev "The figures in the Wehrmacht documents relating to Germany's war losses are therefore contradictory and unreliable.
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According to the report of General George Marshall issued in the "breakdown of German and Italian losses against American, British, and French forces" in the war in Europe was as follows:. A , Germans and Italians were captured in Tunisia  According to the Imperial War Museum Following the Italian surrender in , , Italians volunteered to work as 'co-operators'.
They were given considerable freedom and mixed with local people. Japanese government figures from put their military war dead at 2. Of the army dead a total of 1,, occurred on the battlefronts that Marshall's figures refer to Southern Pacific,  Central Pacific,  India-Burma,  China  and Aleutians.
According to Gregory Frumkin this presumably referred to aggregate German forces including those conscripted outside the German borders. In , Gregory Frumkin, who was throughout its existence the editor of the Statistical Year Book of the League of Nations, provided an assessment of German military losses based on a demographic analysis of the European population from to Frumkin put total German military dead and missing at 3,, Germany borders 3,,; Austria ,; , Sudeten Germans from Czechoslovakia; 40, from France, 3, from the Netherlands; from Norway and from Denmark.
The West German government in November , based on an analysis of the population balance for Germany within its borders, put German military losses at 3,, 1,, killed and 1,, missing. Figures exclude Austria and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe . A demographic analysis of the population balance by the West German government in put the total military losses of the Wehrmacht at 4,,; 3,, for Germany borders ; , conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and , from Austria.
Official statistics published by the West German government put the death toll due to air raids at , The schedule below details the statistics published by the West German government They estimated , total deaths, , due to the strategic bombing of Germany and an additional , killed in air raids during the flight and evacuations on the eastern front. German government Statistical Office. The authors maintain that the German figures for through of , killed was generally correct and that their estimate of , dead for the years and was based on the tons of bombs dropped and the population size of the cities bombed.
With an addition of this estimate of and unrecorded deaths, the final estimation gave in round numbers a half a million German civilians killed by Allied aerial attacks" . He estimated total air raid deaths at , The main points of Overy's analysis are as follows. The West German government in made a rough estimate in of 20, civilians killed during the military campaign in current post war German borders, not including the former German territories in Poland. The losses of civilians from East-Central Europe in the are included with the expulsion dead, the German Archives report of estimated , violent deaths of civilians in East-Central Europe during the military campaign.
The West German government put the number of Germans killed by the Nazi political, racial and religious persecution at , including , German Jews . A report by the German Federal Archive put the total murdered during the Action T4 Euthanasia program at over , persons. Previously it was reported that 70, persons were murdered in the euthanasia program, recent research in the archives of the former East Germany indicate that the number of victims in Germany and Austria was about , The Soviets set up NKVD special camps in the Soviet-occupied parts of Germany and areas east of the Oder-Neisse line to intern Germans accused of alleged ties to the Nazis , or because they were hindering the establishment of Stalinism in East Germany.
Between , and , were detained and at least 43, did not survive. Civilian deaths, due to the flight and expulsion of Germans and the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union , are sometimes included with World War II casualties.
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During the Cold War , the West German government estimated the death toll at 2. This figure was to remain unchallenged until the s when some German historians put the actual death toll in the expulsions at , confirmed deaths listed in a German Red Cross study. He believes that the previous studies by the German government should be subject to critical revision and new research is needed to establish the actual number of expulsion deaths. The following studies were published by the West German government estimating expulsion deaths.
Estimated total German population losses in German borders directly related to the war range between 5. In the West German government figures in the table below list an estimated about 5. In the German government Suchdienste Search Service put the total combined German military and civilian war dead at 7,,, including ethnic Germans outside of Germany and Austrians.
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This figure includes 4. The Austrian government provides the following information on human losses during the rule of the Nazis. For Austria the consequences of the Nazi regime and the Second World War were disastrous: During this period 2, Austrians had been executed and more than 16, citizens murdered in the concentration camps. Some 16, Austrians were killed in prison, while over 67, Austrian Jews were deported to death camps, only 2, of them lived to see the end of the war.
In addition, , Austrians lost their lives serving in the army of the Third Reich or were reported missing, and 24, civilians were killed during bombing raids. In post-war Germany the fate of civilians and prisoners of war has been a contentious topic. The current view of the German government is that these losses were due to an aggressive war started by the German nation.
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The bombing of Dresden and the bombing campaign in general has been a topic of ultra-right propaganda in post-war Germany. The German historian Martin Broszat former head of Institute of Contemporary History in Munich described Nawratil's writings as "polemics with a nationalist-rightist point of view", and that Nawratil "exaggerates in an absurd manner the scale of 'expulsion crimes'". Erika Steinbach , the current President of the Federation, provoked outrage when she supported the statements of other members of the expellee organization claiming that Hitler's attack on Poland was a response to Poland's policy.
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However, in Poland it is viewed by some as an attempt to reopen the wounds of the war and to revert to pre-war borders. The fate of over one million missing German soldiers in the USSR was an issue in post-war West Germany, with some claiming that they were held in secret labor camps by the Soviets. The Canadian author James Bacque a novelist with no previous historical research experience has written a book Other Losses in which he claims that the United States are responsible for the deaths of , to 1,, German POW.
Bacque presents his arguments with a description of the horrific conditions at the Rheinwiesenlager POW camps and eyewitness accounts of retired US military officers. Bacque maintains that there has been a conspiracy by the United States to cover up these losses.